How do clouds fly? And other atmospheric mysteries
In this age of advanced technology, with so many scientific discoveries under our collective belt, it may seem that our understanding of nature is essentially complete, with only a few details to be worked out. Yet when we look closer, these “details” sometimes prove significant. Profound mysteries remain unexplained, even when it comes to ubiquitous phenomena that concern us on a daily basis, like the weather. The behavior of earth’s atmosphere is not only difficult to predict, but exhibits properties that challenge our fundamental understanding of air and water. For example:
Clouds are composed of negatively charged droplets of water, called aerosol droplets. If negative charges repel one another, how can those droplets coalesce to form clouds? Further, the density of water droplets exceeds the density of air, which means they should settle to the ground, yet they do not. What keeps clouds aloft?
Besides oxygen and nitrogen, the atmosphere contains other gases including carbon dioxide and argon. The densities of these latter two gases actually exceed those of oxygen and nitrogen. If denser gases settle beneath the lighter ones, then why are we not breathing pure argon?
While the concentrations of atmospheric gases such as carbon dioxide can vary, the nitrogen-to-oxygen ratio remains stubbornly constant at 3.727. Atmospheric scientists work assiduously to push the measurement precision from four to five significant digits in the hope of uncovering even trivial variants. This constancy seems to hold everywhere — in cities, on farms, atop mountains, in deserts, over oceans. Even in wintry Siberia, where photosynthesis is nil, still the nitrogen-oxygen ratio is the same as in the jungles of the Amazon. Why does the nitrogen to oxygen ratio remain so remarkably constant? Is there some kind of stoichiometric constraint?
Humid environments retard evaporation. How then does an evaporating water molecule know the level of humidity in the air above, and therefore whether or not to evaporate?
The atmosphere supposedly rests on the earth because of pressure. We think of gas molecules pressing upon one another like a pile of bricks, the lowest ones pushing on the earth’s surface. However, the atmosphere is a gas. By definition, gas molecules rarely touch one another. Therefore, atmospheric molecules should press rather loosely if at all. If so, why don’t the strong winds up there blow the atmosphere away?
Professor Gerald H.Pollack, Ph.D., University of Washington, Executive Director of the Institute for Venture Science
GERALD POLLACK, PhD
Weather and EZ Water: An Intimate Role of Separated Charge
Among atmospheric scientists, two central features of weather dynamics remain mechanistically uncertain: evaporation and cloud formation. Absent proper understanding, predicting weather patterns remains challenging. Even simple weather-related phenomena elude understanding. For example: (i) Why can clouds suspend themselves above the earth? From the weight of the constituent water droplets, the force of gravitation should pull clouds downward, but commonly it doesn’t. Clouds float. And (ii), why do dark clouds sometimes release their contents as rain, and other times not? His work on EZ water provides a basis for possible answers to those and related questions. The presentation will offer a fresh overview of possible mechanisms of weather. It will propose answers to these questions and offer insights into possible mechanisms of common, as well as exotic, weather phenomena such as hurricanes and tornadoes. Weather, after all, is a phenomenon centered on water — if EZ (fourth-phase) water exists, then it must play some role in those phenomena. The question we address is how, and Dr. Pollack postulates that charge plays a central role.
“ Why don’t the strong winds up there blow the atmosphere away? ”
Blow the atmosphere away, to where? To the outer space? I would think that all the layers of the atmosphere are under the influence of Earth’s gravitational pull. In physics, escape velocity is the minimum speed needed for any object to escape from the gravitational pull of a massive body. The escape velocity from Earth is about 11 km/s ; 40,000 km/h ; 25,000 mph. There are no such strong winds up there.
Moreover, I see 3 progressively stronger barriers preventing the atmosphere (troposphere & stratosphere) from being blown away into the outer space:
- ozone layer
So, why the ionosphere would not slowly dissipate, or evaporate like black holes do, being blown away by the Solar wind into the outer space? Maybe because it is held in place by Earth’s magnetic field?
However, one of the few interesting questions remain: What is the specific physical cause of the sudden appearance (discontinuity) of the tropopause?
From looking at the graphic below, I speculate that tropopause is being affected not only by temperature, but also by the shape of Earth’s magnetic field, its highest density being in magnetic pole regions:
“ Besides oxygen and nitrogen, the atmosphere contains other gases including carbon dioxide and argon. The densities of these latter two gases actually exceed those of oxygen and nitrogen. If denser gases settle beneath the lighter ones, then why are we not breathing pure argon? ”
I speculate that the atmosphere is a gas crystal. There are not only solid crystals, but also liquid crystals. So, why not gas crystals? Gas is a fluid, after all. As we know, gases exhibit the most chaotic behavior, so what would be the factor that could induce a bit of much needed global order into the atmosphere? Well, what about Earth’s magnetic and electric fields?
“ Why does the nitrogen to oxygen ratio remain so remarkably constant? Is there some kind of stoichiometric constraint? ”
One of the reasons for this constraint in the atmosphere could be the direct consequence of it being a gas crystal.
“ Clouds are composed of negatively charged droplets of water, called aerosol droplets. If negative charges repel one another, how can those droplets coalesce to form clouds? Further, the density of water droplets exceeds the density of air, which means they should settle to the ground, yet they do not. What keeps clouds aloft? ”
The experimental observation of the Abraham force induced by an oscillating electric field and a static magnetic field has been reported in solid dielectrics, and recently also in gases, as well as in a conducting medium:
As to how can those negatively charged water droplets coalesce to form clouds, it seem to me that their mutual electric repulsion needs to be counter-balanced by some attractive force. The only such force that I could think of at the moment would be combined attractive gravity among water droplets.