Biefeld-Brown

THE BIEFELD-BROWN EFFECT

 

Contrary to the popular scientific opinion, the Biefeld-Brown effect has been experimentally confirmed many times, also in high vacuum:

  1. http://www.google.ca/patents/US6317310
  2. https://www.google.com/patents/US6411493
  3. https://arxiv.org/ftp/physics/papers/0211/0211001.pdf
  4. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CGN65lse5yE
  5. http://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.4890353
  6. https://arxiv.org/vc/physics/papers/0211/0211001v1.pdf
  7. https://arxiv.org/pdf/1502.01917.pdf

 

Interestingly,  the “impossible” Roger Shawyer EmDrive’s thrust is an instance of the Biefeld-Brown effect :

 

The Abraham force constitutes the physical basis for explaining the Biefeld-Brown effect :

253339a0-i1a

From the 1st of Feb. till the 1st of March in 1996,  the research group of the HONDA R&D Institute conducted experiments to verify the Biefeld-Brown effect with an improved experimental device to reject the influence of corona discharges and electric wind around the capacitor by setting the capacitor in the insulator oil contained within a metallic vessel. They found that the weight loss by an alternate electric field, i.e. the dynamical effect, was greater than by the static one:

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The Biefeld-Brown Effect and the Global Electric Circuit

A comparison of the measured Biefeld-Brown effect and the measured global circuit electric field shows several parallels. Both exhibit diurnal variations, and both show a dependence on thunderstorm activity. Based on an analysis of experimental data taken on the Biefeld-Brown effect, a case is made for describing this effect as a secondary electrostatic effect related to the global electric field. It is concluded that the Biefeld-Brown effect is a real effect :

 

The Abraham force is scale invariant, and as such can manifest on any macro-scale in the Universe. This is the reason why gravity and antigravity, as large-scale cosmic phenomena are fundamentally of a quantum nature.

However, neither the Abraham force alone, nor the Biefeld-Brown effect alone, nor both of them together, are antigravity, or gravity, yet.

The capacitor depicted in the fig.3 below needs to be, of course, asymmetric:

ros3

brown-bb

 

The experimentally verified Abraham force acts in the low frequency conditions.The theoretically predicted Feigel effect would act in the high frequency conditions. It is easy to imagine that the hypothetical Feigel effect and its corresponding Feigel force is simply the high frequencies equivalent of the Abraham force. This would naturally resolve the long-standing Abraham-Minkowski controversy, i.e. there was no controversy, because the low frequency spectrum is covered by the Abraham force, and the high frequency spectrum is covered by the hypothetical Feigel effect and its corresponding Feigel force, which are based on the Minkowski’s energy-momentum tensor, as opposed to the Abraham’s one of the Abraham-Minkowski controversy.

So, now, we shall see how the Biefeld-Brown effect is a macro-scale instance of the Abraham force, and also of the hypothetical Feigel effect described by the Minkowski’s equations.

It is important to notice that the Feigel effect (the fundamental quantum effect described by the Minkowski’s equations) is a quantum-scale phenomenon, whereas the Biefeld-Brown effect is a macro-scale phenomenon. As a matter of fact, the Feigel quantum effect can also manifest in any macro-scale in the Universe. This is the reason why gravity (and antigravity) as a large-scale cosmic phenomenon is of a fundamentally quantum nature.

 “ Self-propulsion in quantum vacuum may be achieved by rotating magneto-electric nano-particles. The back-action follows from changes in momentum of quantum vacuum fluctuations (zero-point energy), generated in magneto-electric materials. This effect may provide new tools for investigation of the quantum nature of our world. It might also serve in the future as a “quantum wheel” to correct satellite orientation in space.” 

 

However, neither the Feigel effect alone, nor the Biefeld-Brown effect alone, nor both of them together, are antigravity, or gravity, yet.

The above experiments were, of course, dogmatically dismissed by mainstream physics establishment, purely on theoretical grounds without due consideration. Sandy Kidd’s gyro device was developed based on Prof. Eric Laithwaite’s gyro experiments. Dr. Bill Ferrier of Dundee University had this to say about Sandy Kidd’s device:

“ There is no doubt that the machine does produce vertical lift. Several modifications were then made at my suggestions in order to disprove other possibilities of lift, particularly aerodynamic effects.”  —

 

Because there is no doubt that Sandy Kidd’s device does produce vertical lift, therefore Prof. Eric Laithwaite’s gyro experiments were not mere illusions either, and they do in fact produce anomalous effect which is easily and clearly explained by my quantum antigravity hypothesis.

The reason that the above two gyro experiments produce anomalous effect is that they are being performed in Earth’s magnetic and electric fields that have mutually perpendicular lines, and their axis of spin is perpendicular to Earth’s electric field lines, Earth also being an asymmetric (spherical) electric capacitor as per the Biefeld-Brown effect. It is not an anomalous effect  it is the antigravity effect.

Mainstream scientists brash off any gyro “antigravity” effect as nonsense, saying that there is absolutely nothing anomalous there. Everything is fine. That is what plain gyros simply do. If we comb through all the advanced gyro math, we will find no antigravity in them, nor anything else that could come close to “anomalous.” Neither we will find black holes, time travel, or curved spacetime in Kepler’s or Newton’s equations. Fortunately, there is mainstream empirical evidence demonstrating such anomalous effect. Several such experiments have been performed by Prof. Alexander Dmitriev, and their anomalous empirical results were described in his research papers:

 

Does dielectric deliver something for nothing?

By now, many people are familiar with the idea that the vacuum contains energy – in fact a great deal of it – and that some can be extracted to do physical work. The standard example is the Casimir effect, where two parallel metal plates are pulled together as they reduce the zero-point energy in the vacuum between them. Now Alexander Feigel of Rockefeller University in New York has predicted an analogous but rather surprising effect: that a dielectric body placed in crossed electric and magnetic fields will extract linear momentum from the vacuum and start to move. Quantum Vacuum Contribution to the Momentum of the Dielectric Media:

Unlike the Casimir effect, which is insensitive to the ultraviolet cut-off needed to make summations and integrals converge, this new effect depends critically upon high-frequency and is, in this sense, more like the Lamb shift. The effect is calculated to be small – about 50 nm/s for a 17 T magnetic field and an electric field of 100,000 V/m – but might just be observable. Further reading:  Alexander Feigel 2004,  Phys. Rev. Lett. 92 020404.

 

Momentum From Nothing?

The vacuum of empty space is a restless place. According to quantum mechanics, particles pop in and out of existence, and those “virtual” particles give the vacuum energy and can affect tiny objects. For example, two parallel metal plates will feel a minute force, called the Casimir effect, pulling them together. That’s because virtual photons with certain wavelengths cannot exist between them. The vacuum outside the plates thus has more energy, so it squeezes the plates together.

But the vacuum can also possess momentum, says Alexander Feigel of Rockefeller University in New York, and it should be possible to transfer some of that momentum to a material object. To reach that conclusion, Feigel began by addressing a long-standing controversy in electrodynamics: How should one define the momentum of an electromagnetic field permeating matter? For nearly a century, physicists have had two definitions, one proposed by German physicist Max Abraham and another derived by German mathematician Hermann Minkowski. According to Abraham’s formulation, the momentum of the electromagnetic field should be smaller in materials through which light travels more slowly; Minkowski’s formulation states that in such materials the momentum should be bigger. Using relativity, Feigel found that the Abraham definition accounts for the momentum of the electric and magnetic fields alone, while the Minkowski definition also takes into account the momentum of the material.

Feigel next used his theoretical tools to analyze the momentum inside a material placed in strong, perpendicular electric and magnetic fields. He found that virtual photons traveling through the material would have a strange asymmetry. If the electric field pointed up and the magnetic field pointed north, then virtual photons of a given energy traveling east would have a different momentum from those traveling west. That asymmetry would give the vacuum a net momentum in one direction, and the material would have to gain momentum in the opposite direction to compensate. In fields of 100,000 volts per meter and 17 tesla–which can be created in the lab–the material should move at a rate of 50 nanometers per second, Feigel says, which should be measurable.

Others had reached similar conclusions about the meanings of the Abraham and Minkowski definitions of momentum, but Feigel’s analysis is simpler, says Rodney Loudon of the University of Essex in Colchester, United Kingdom. “He’s done it in quite a nice, elegant way,” Loudon says. However, Ulf Leonhardt of the University of St. Andrews in Scotland says Feigel’s approach may be a little too simple, as it treats the material as a macroscopic object and does not begin with the forces on the individual atoms in it. “There are definitely some subtleties that he’s left out,” Leonhardt says, though the results may still be correct.

minkowski

For the sake of explanation, we will be using the following term: the Biefeld-Brown vector.” This “vector” inside an asymmetric capacitor always points in the direction from the negative to positive plate, and indicates the direction in which the capacitor will move, when charged.

In short, the Feigel effect is a “spontaneous” movement of a nano-particle inside strong electric and magnetic fields which lines are perpendicular, perhaps due to the polarization of quantum vacuum :

Also in short, the Biefeld-Brown effect is a “spontaneous” movement of an asymmetric electric capacitor inside strong electric and magnetic fields which lines are perpendicular. Here, we have perpendicular electric and magnetic field lines of Earth:

Earth-AntigravityCapacitor

The experimental asymmetric capacitor is oriented vertically, like in the fig.3 above, with the larger positive plate up. The Biefeld-Brown vector is “up”, always in the direction from negative to positive plate. Earth, as an asymmetric capacitor, is oriented in the same way, the smaller negative plate down (ground) and the larger positive plate up (ionosphere), so its Biefeld-Brown vector direction is also “up”. The internal lines of vertically oriented capacitors’s own electric field are aligned with Earth’s electric field lines, and are also perpendicular to Earth’s magnetic field lines.

The capacitor in the Biefeld-Brown effect is a macro-scale equivalent of the above nano-size material body from the Feigel effect.

However, there is a small but important difference between the electric field in the Feigel effect, and the electric field in the Biefeld-Brown effect.

In the Feigel effect, the electric field can simply be homogeneous. In the Biefeld-Brown effect, the electric field is purposefully inhomogeneous (charge density distribution). The reason that Biefeld-Brown effect is stronger than the Feigel effect, is that its electric field is inhomogeneous. Earth’s electric field is also inhomogeneous, because Earth is an asymmetric capacitor.

Under these conditions, if we charge the capacitor with high voltage, it will fly straight up.

Would you believe me?     You don’t have to.

In a series of papers co-authored with fellow university physicist Douglas G. Torr, the founder of PST Associates, LLC, a US Department of Defense contractor, that were published between 1991 and 1993, Dr. Ning Li claimed a practical way to produce antigravity effects. When charged with high voltage, the electric device’s asymmetric electrodes produced an inhomogeneous electric field, and generated an antigravitational effect  —

 

IS THE BIEFELD-BROWN EFFECT ANTIGRAVITY?

If we define the Biefeld-Brown effect merely as a charged asymmetric capacitor with larger positively charged plate, then even if it fly up, or down (fig.3 above), as in the above example, it is not antigravity (or gravity) yet, because in order to do it, it also needs external magnetic field that is perpendicular to its electric field. So, only within Earth’s magnetic field the Biefeld-Brown effect becomes antigravity, or gravity (see fig.3 above), depending on its positive plate up or down orientation.

It is exactly the same scenario like with the horizontally spinning gyroscope. Spinning gyroscopes alone, by themselves do not produce any antigravity, or gravity, but within Earth’s electric and magnetic fields that are perpendicular, it is antigravity that keeps the spinning gyroscope from falling under the force of gravity while it is rotating (precessing) horizontally, its angular momentum being also in a plane perpendicular to Earth’s electric field lines.

Schematic_of_combined_Field-Aligned_Currents_and_ionospheric_current_system.svg

NASA-sounds-Van-Allen

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