Intergalactic gravity

ABOVE — artist’s impression of the Virgo galaxy cluster with one possible configuration of magnetic field lines. The Virgo Cluster is a cluster of galaxies whose center is 53.8 ± 0.3 Mly (16.5 ± 0.1 Mpc) away in the constellation Virgo. Comprising approximately 1300 (and possibly up to 2000) member galaxies, the cluster forms the heart of the larger Virgo Supercluster, of which the Local Group (containing the Milky Way galaxy) is an outlying member. The Local Group actually experiences the mass of the Virgo Supercluster as the Virgocentric flow. The Virgocentric flow is the preferred movement of Local Group galaxies towards the Virgo cluster caused by its overwhelming gravity, which separates bound objects from the Hubble flow of cosmic expansion.

 

Einstein’s general relativity and the theory of quantum mechanics are fundamentally incompatible, which has prompted over 30 years of work in string theory and quantum gravity. Not only Einstein’s theory does not work on the quantum scale; it does not work on the scale of galactic clusters either.

 

The last and most important question is: How this particular, purported quantum gravity, while not being a fundamental force, and therefore not having its own autonomous field with its corresponding particle, would be able to propagate in the intergalactic space?

This is possible due to galactic cluster’s magnetic fields. At this point, it is a conjecture that it could, and should also have something to do with: quantum vacuum as an intergalactic physical medium, with quantum vacuum polarization, and with quantum entanglement.

 

Short-term changes in the Earth’s magnetic field, that occur over periods of just years or decades, have now been shown to be very closely correlated with changes in gravity:

 

Astronomers have observed a cluster of galaxies being pulled in by a mysterious force

 

The Magellanic Bridge :

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Astronomers have detected a magnetic field associated with the Magellanic Bridge, the filament of gas stretching 75 thousand light-years between the Milky Way Galaxy’s nearest galactic neighbours, the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds:

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The Sun’s magnetic field extends all the way to the edge of the Solar system,” explains Opher. “Because the Sun spins, its magnetic field becomes twisted and wrinkled, a bit like a ballerina’s skirt. Far, far away from the sun, where the Voyagers are now, the folds of the skirt bunch up.” When a magnetic field gets severely folded like this, interesting things can happen. Lines of magnetic force criss-cross, and “reconnect”. (Magnetic reconnection is the same energetic process underlying solar flares.) The crowded folds of the skirt reorganize themselves, sometimes explosively, into foamy magnetic bubbles. “We never expected to find such a foam at the edge of the solar system, but there it is!” says Opher’s colleague, University of Maryland physicist Jim Drake. We are still trying to wrap our minds around the implications of these findings:

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ABOVE — Artist’s concept of the heliospheric current sheet. The spining Sun is located in the center. The current sheet circles the Sun’s equator like a wavy skirt around a ballerina’s waist.

The sun’s magnetic field permeates the entire solar system called the heliosphere. All nine planets orbit inside it. But the biggest thing in the heliosphere is not a planet, or even the sun. It’s the current sheet — a sprawling surface where the polarity of the sun’s magnetic field changes from plus (north) to minus (south). A small electrical current flows within the sheet, about 10−10 A/m². The thickness of the current sheet is about 10,000 km near the orbit of the Earth.

Due to the tilt of the magnetic axis in relation to the Sun’s spin axis, the heliospheric current sheet flaps like a flag in the wind. The flapping current sheet separates regions of oppositely pointing magnetic field, called sectors.

As Earth orbits the sun, it dips in and out of the undulating current sheet. On one side the sun’s magnetic field points north (toward the Sun), on the other side it points south (away from the Sun). South-pointing solar magnetic fields tend to cancel Earth’s own magnetic field. Solar wind energy can then penetrate the local space around our planet and fuel geomagnetic storms.

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Galactic and intergalactic magnetic fields; Proceedings of the 140th Symposium of the International Astronomical Union

The present conference on galactic and intergalactic magnetic fields (MF) encompasses a survey of magnetic phenomena near the solar photosphere, the MF structure of the Galaxy, MFs in and around supernova remnants, magnetohydrodynamics of galactic MFs, the MF structure of external spiral galaxies, and MFs in molecular clouds. Also addressed are MFs in galactic nuclei, the role of MFs in radio-source jets, MFs in the galactic environment, MFs in the early universe, MFs at high redshifts, MFs in galaxy clusters and intergalactic medium, the role of MFs in extended radio lobes, and MFs in dark globules and the prestellar and circumstellar environment. Specific issues addressed include a coronal magnetic structures observing campaign, phenomena involving magnetic vortex tubes.

 

Analogies of toroidal magnetic vortex tubes:

 

Toroidal vortex tube of energy connects two spinning bodies: Jupiter and its moon (compare to the above toroidal vortex tube in the pool)

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An electric current of five million amperes flows along moon Io’s flux tube. It connects moon Io to the upper atmosphere of Jupiter, like a giant umbilical cord. The plasma torus is centered near Io’s orbit, and it is about as thick as Jupiter is wide. The torus is filled with energetic sulfur and oxygen ions that have a temperature of about 100 thousand kelvin. Because the planet’s rotational axis is tilted with respect to the magnetic axis, the Io’s orbit is inclined to the plasma torus. Currents are generated as the plasma from the Io torus spreads into the vast, rotating magnetosphere of Jupiter, and these currents couple the moon to Jupiter’s atmosphere where they stimulate a ring, or oval, of aurora emissions:

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The shape of the healthy heart is optimized for vortex ring formation:

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Fusion energy research has in the past 40 years focused primarily on the tokamak concept, but recent advances in plasma theory and computational power have led to renewed interest in stellarators. The largest and most sophisticated stellarator in the world, Wendelstein 7-X has just started operation, with the aim to show that the earlier weaknesses of this concept have been addressed successfully, and that the intrinsic advantages of the concept persist, also at plasma parameters approaching those of a future fusion power plant. Here we show the first physics results, obtained before plasma operation: that the carefully tailored topology of nested magnetic surfaces needed for good confinement is realized, and that the measured deviations are smaller than one part in 100,000. This is a significant step forward in stellarator research, since it shows that the complicated and delicate magnetic topology can be created and verified with the required accuracy.

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