SpaceDrive

THE COMPLETE AND FINAL ANTIGRAVITY EXPERIMENT.

Blueprint of near-the-speed-of-Light propellantless quantum electrodynamic G-Engine — the SpaceDrive.

The complete mathematical description of quantum antigravity will slowly come later, in due time, in a fashion similar to Faraday-Maxwell developments. After all, Thomas Edison didn’t need all the math of quantum mechanics, or of Einstein’s photoelectric effect, or of de Broglie’s wave–particle duality, to make his light bulb work:

In order to perform this complete and final antigravity experiment, we will need the following 3 components properly combined, oriented, and tuned:

  1. rotor  (angular momentum);
  2. asymmetric capacitor  ( inhomogeneous electric field );
  3. electromagnet  ( magnetic field ) :

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The Chairperson of Space Systems at the Institute for Aerospace Engineering of Dresden University of Technology in Germany, Univ.-Prof. Dr. Techn. Martin Tajmar, Ph.D.,

In parallel to the development of Maxwell’s equations, Wilhelm Weber proposed a force that also covered all known aspects of electromagnetism (Ampere, Coulomb, Faraday and Gauss’s laws) and incorporated Newton’s third law in the strong form, that is that the force is always along the straight line joining two charges (which also implies the conservation of linear and angular momentum). However, Weber’s electrodynamics also gives rise to new effects such as longitudinal forces or the change of the effective inertial mass of a charge inside a charged spherical shell which we could exploit for negative matter propulsion.

Weber’s force and the related potential energy is given by […] where q1 and q2 are the respective charges and r is the distance between them. If we now consider a single charge inside a charged spherical dielectric shell (in order to ignore eddy currents or mirror charges), we must integrate the force and sum up all the interaction between the single charge inside the shell and all other charges along the shell.

Surprisingly, a net force remains that acts on the single charge when it accelerates inside the shell given by […] where Q is the charge on the shell, R the shell’s radius and V the electrostatic potential inside the shell.

Classically, no force is expected on a charge inside a charged shell as the electric potential is constant and therefore no electric and no force acts on charges inside. According to Weber’s electrodynamics, this force is proportional to acceleration of the charge and therefore influences the charge’s inertial mass. If the total inertial mass is now the sum of the unaffected mass and the Weber mass, we may express the effective mass of the charge as […]

The equation predicts that a change in mass should be quite observable in a dedicated laboratory experiment. Considering a dielectric shell with a radius of 0.5 m charged up to 1.5 MV, we could expect to double an electron’s mass – or reduce it to zero depending on the shell’s charge polarity. Mikhailov published a number of experiments were such an effect was indeed observed. First, he put a neon glow lamp inside a glass shell that was coated by a thin layer of Ga-In and an RC-oscillator inside a Faraday shield below. The coated glass shell imitates the charged dielectric shell as originally proposed by Prof. A.K.T. Assis. The frequency of the lamp is directly proportional to the electron’s mass. Indeed he observed that the lamp’s frequency changed if he charged the sphere as predicted by Equ. (4) within a factor 3/2. In a second experiment, the neon lamp was replaced by a Barkhausen-Kurz generator leading to similar results. Finally, the neon-lamp experiment was repeated with two charged concentric shells showing that the frequency/mass effect from charging up the first shell can be counterbalances by oppositely charging the outer shell.

Junginger and Popovich repeated the neon glow lamp experiment and implemented an optical counter instead of electrically measuring the frequency of the lamp – and observed a null result. Also Little et al performed a similar replication and observed a null result with optical counters and observed that the electric measurement of the lamp’s frequency may be influenced by the Faraday’s shield potential depending on the coupling capacitor used (however the signature of the effect was a parabola instead of the linear relationship as obtained by Mikhailov).

However, both replication teams used only a metallic Faraday cage to surround the neon lamp and the RC-oscillator and not a dielectric (glass) shell covered with a metallic layer. As outlined by Prof. A.K.T. Assis already in his original derivation of the effect, it is crucial to use a dielectric charged shell as mirror charges or eddy currents may completely shield the effect. A new replication attempt using a metal-covered dielectric glass shell similar to Mikhailov’s approach and using both electric and optical counters is currently underway at TU Dresden in order to finally prove or disprove the effect.

Assuming that Weber electrodynamics hold, we could realize negative matter propulsion by putting a charged capacitor inside a positively charged dielectric shell as shown in Fig. 3. We are considering only a positively charged shell because the electron’s mass is much smaller than the proton’s. It may also work with a negatively charged outer shell but at significantly higher potential. The positive electric potential from the charged shell would decrease the electron’s mass on the negative side of the capacitor and increase the mass of the electron’s hole (the proton) on the positive side of the capacitor. Moreover, the Coulomb force between the capacitor charges would act as a spring. The effect should occur once the outer potential is high enough to make the electron’s effective mass negative. The thruster’s force is then only determined by the spring / Coulomb force on the capacitor plates and therefore by the capacitor’s area A, capacity C and potential V on the plates. By using high-k dielectrics, the critical voltage on the outer shell may be reduced and the effect would start to occur probably at already lower voltages.

Considering the force between two plates of a capacitor […] and using realistic values for off-the shelve high voltage capacitors, the force can easily get several hundred Newtons or higher which should be readily measureable using a balance.

But is this realistic? The Coulomb force should act as a spring to exert a force on the charges and Equ.(3) assumed that the effective mass changes for charges under acceleration inside the sphere. However, the charges in a capacitor are not accelerating, nor moving in a steady state, they accumulate on the side of the plates and are counterbalanced by internal mechanical forces so that they are standing still. We may expect forces during charging and discharging of the capacitor when the charges move and accelerate, with proper positioning by putting the capacitor plates apart and charge them while removing the mechanical fixation, due to thermal vibrations, the charges will in fact oscillate a little and feel acceleration and the Coulomb force, however the resulting force should be much less than expected from Equ.(5) and even level out to zero.

Maybe the implementation of a spring between one capacitor plate and the dielectric could solve this issue, however the acceleration of the charge carriers will be much smaller than in the Coulomb attraction-spring case. The exact amount of force is therefore difficult to calculate, however the large maximum value according to Equ. (5) should be stimulating enough to investigate such an effect experimentally.

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 “ There is only one thing more powerful and more explosive than all the armies in the world, and that is an idea whose time has come.” — Victor Hugo

eqa

Taming gravity

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